We all have undoubtedly read, discussed, or listened about varroa mites, one of the critical factors behind bee colony collapse. We love our honey bees — tragically, mites do as well. The varroa mite is an excellent danger for the European honey bee. Beekeepers need to increase their efforts in the fall to control varroa. A few honey bees and some stock selections are fit for keeping vermin numbers at lower levels. However, beekeepers need to intercede in September when there are other close provinces and close beekeeping neighbours.
Varroa mites have two phase in the host honey bee settlement: phoretic — presently being named as dispersing — the stage when varroa mites are found on the adult bees; and a second, conceptive or reproductive stage when mites are raising young within capped drone and worker brood cells. Individual varroa goes through a few days on the adults, benefiting from fat between ventral stomach sections. Afterwards, they replicate more female parasites after fourteen days inside capped brood cells. Therefore, the female mites are examined, as male varroa is not of pathogenic concern.
Using more than one mite control is currently the "standard." Procedures to control both mite stages are required as we, unfortunately, need weapons to control the virus. Varroa control implies concerted effort to understand and use Integrated Pest Management.
IPM is the idea of looking to use an assortment of strategies to keep a mite under an injury level. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations characterizes IPM as "the careful thought of all accessible pest control techniques and subsequent integration of appropriate measures that debilitate the advancement of mite populations. IPM keeps pesticides and different medications to levels that are economically justified to diminish or limit dangers to human wellbeing and the climate." Thus, IPM is not anti-chemical but instead infers a wise utilization of synthetic substances, coordinated with different methodologies, to keep pest populations below economically damaging levels.
Mite Sampling in IPM Approach –
Sampling is vital to an IPM approach to deal with mite control. Sampling permits us to screen parasite development. Looking for mites on adult honey bees or in drone broods is certainly not a sufficient means to find that solution. Sticky sample (debris) boards are not exceptionally exact. The best technique is to take a sample of 200-300 adult honey bees and "wash" the mites from the honey bee bodies. It is then counted how many mites are found per 100 honey bees — percent infestation.
Using liquor, grease-cutting cleaner, or window-washing liquid are the ideal ways of washing adult honey bees. Sampling in April or May should show low parasite numbers as most bugs are in their reproductive stage and mite populations are low (particularly if oxalic acid was utilized during a brood-less winter period). Yet, sampling is certifiably not a limited-time offer — it is an endless cycle. The advantage will be that sampling gets simpler, and practice will further develop accuracy. It is ideal to have a record spanning a more extended time period.
It is prescribed to sample honey bees from a brood frame or a casing on the edge of the brood region to decrease the chances of queen capture. Rather than gathering honey bees straightforwardly into a sample container, shake honey bees from the frame into a plastic dishpan to increase the chance of recognizing a queen to ensure she doesn't accidentally get into the sample container. Three hundred honey bees are one-half cup loaded up with adult honey bees. Count honey bees a couple of times to practice and check the sample container — it will become simpler to assess with practice.
The most troublesome sampling and control period in bee colony (and bug) development are when provinces have filled the brood boxes, and supers are on colonies. Significantly, counts were made during this period. Make monthly counts as a minimum. It is better to have a record of mite development in a state than to delay until September after supers are eliminated to start mite sampling.
Knowing the number of parasites is in a hive when sampling isn't exact permits the assurance of a danger limit to target treatment choices. We wanted to take on a bug level we feel alright with — a level we accept our province can endure. This number has been consistently dropping as we comprehend the elements of parasites and the transmission of viruses. Consider anything more than 3% (3 parasites for every 100 honey bees washed) in September sampling to mean there is some danger that your colony will not successfully overwinter. The higher the number, the more noteworthy the danger is.
Cultural Controlling –
According to Mr. Basem Barry, founder & CEO of Geohoney, cultural controlling of mites is essential. This includes the beekeeper doing things like dispersing settlements, using diverse hive colour plans, lessening the number of provinces in a single area and using sunny versus shaded colony sites. Stepping up would be to incorporate more mite-resistant queen stock with yearly re-queening. A further move forward is empowering everyone around you to participate in mite control to avoid improving mite hive bombs. We hope that these strategies work well in saving the honey bee populations from declining, thereby helping in maintaining the ecosystem and food availability.