Royal jelly is a gelatinous milky secretion produced by honey bees to nurture the queen bees and their young. It is commonly used as a dietary supplement to treat various physical ailments and chronic diseases. While people have used it for ages as traditional medicine, its applications in Western medicine still remain controversial.
Royal jelly is exceptionally nutritious and may have antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. These properties might be responsible for many royal jelly's well-being claims. People ordinarily consume it orally or apply it directly to the skin. Several types of research recommend that specific nutrients in royal jelly are beneficial for physical wellbeing.
Chemical Composition of Royal Jelly –
Royal jelly is a complex bee product consisting of water (50% - 60%), proteins (18%), carbs (15%), lipids (3%-6%), water-solvent nutrients, minerals, and free amino acids, and numerous other compounds. Proteins address the central portion of royal jelly. It contains a group of proteins called major royal jelly proteins, which play a fundamental nourishing part in the diet routine of the queen honey bee.
Besides this family of proteins, royal jelly is also rich in eight beneficial amino acids. Lipid fraction is another essential portion of royal jelly that mainly consist of about 80% -85% of fatty acids. Natural acids of royal jelly usually have 8-12 carbon molecules, which are either hydroxyl unsaturated fats or dicarboxylic acids. The primary acid is the 10-hydroxy-2-decanoic acid (10-HDA), a novel active substance in royal jelly. 10-HDA is synthetically stable and has been taken on as a worldwide norm for the quality and freshness of royal jelly.
Other Components in Royal Jelly –
There are also adenosine monophosphate and adenosine monophosphate N1 oxide in royal jelly. The latter is the result of the oxidation of adenosine at the N1 position of adenine base moiety. It just exists in royal jelly and isn't found in other regular items. Adenosine monophosphate N1 oxide assumes a significant physiological part. It can activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 or 2 (ERK1/2) pathway through the A2A Adenosine receptor to advance neurite outgrowth and initiate pheochromocytoma PC12 cell separation. The review shows that the adenosine content of unadulterated royal jelly is between 27-50 μg/g, while RJ as a dietary supplement is between 2-173 μg/g (Kim and Lee, 2011). Moreover, royal jelly additionally contains acetylcholine (ACh) and chemicals (testosterone, flavonoids, prolactin, and estradiol), and other bioactive parts.
Bioactive Compounds in Royal Jelly –
Royal jelly plays numerous biological roles. Below is information that shows the influence of royal jelly and its active components on life, the digestive system, immunity, obesity, memory, anticancer and antibacterial effects.
MRJP1 oligomer helps resist intestinal inflammation and promotes the proliferation of IEC-6 cells.
MRJP 2 and its isomer X1 offer a strong anticancer effect. They both assist in promoting caspase-dependent apoptosis and inhibiting the expression of Bcl-2 and p53 in HepG2 cells.
MRJP3 is known for its strong immunoregulatory effect.
MRJPs help improves memory and the spatial memory capability of the old rats by influencing the metabolism of cysteine, taurine, and energy metabolism. They also assist in increasing lifespan, antioxidant activity, and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathways.
Royalisin assists in increasing the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans by promoting epidermal growth factor signaling.
Apolipophorin III-like protein has a strong immunoregulatory effect that helps in enhancing the immune response after phosphorylation.
10-HAD helps in restoring the proliferation of thymus and spleen cells and enhances the activity of T cells and B cells. It also prolongs lifespan and improves hyperglycemia and insulin resistance by activating the expression of PGC-1α.
HPO-DAEE (The derivative of 10-HDA) possesses a strong anticancer effect that helps promote the apoptosis of human lung cancer A549 cells through the ROS-ERK-p38 pathway, through the CHOP pathway partly.
3,10-DDA shows a strong immunoregulatory effect that inhibits the proliferation of allogeneic T cells and the production of IL-2 dependent on dendritic cells.
Ach helps in resisting intestinal inflammation.
AMP-N1 oxide and their analogues show a strong anticancer effect. They promote axonal growth of rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells by activating integrin signaling, adenosine A2A receptor, and MAPK signaling pathway.
Biological Activities of Royal Jelly –
(1) Has strong immunoregulatory effects
(2) Helps in prolonging the lifespan
(3) Assists in improving memory
(4) Shows strong antidiabetic effects
(5) Helps in restraining obesity
(6) Has strong anticancer and antibacterial effects
(7) Highly effective for the digestive system
(8) Helps in reducing liver damage
Health Benefits of Royal Jelly –
(1) Improves Reproductive Health –
Studies have shown that royal jelly consumption is effective in reducing premenstrual syndrome. It is highly beneficial in improving reproductive health.
(2) Treats Neurodegenerative and Aging Diseases –
Royal jelly assists in stimulating the physical and mental functions of the elderly person. Regular consumption of it helps in increasing their appetite and weight. In addition, royal jelly's behavioral and neurochemical effects help increase the lifespan and achieve better cognitive performance.
(3) Assists in Wound Healing –
Royal jelly is a beautiful ingredient in enhancing wound-healing activity. It is effective in treating diabetic foot ulcers besides standard treatments. The potent antimicrobial properties of royal jelly help prevent infections and reduce the wound healing time of cuts, burns, and other skin problems.
Being a popular honey bee product and functional food, royal jelly is wealthy in significant active ingredients, which are crucial in maintaining human wellbeing. Although the impacts of royal jelly in anticancer, anti-inflammatory, immune regulation, memory regulation, and different perspectives have been demonstrated, whether there are a few potential functions are as yet unclear. For instance, the interaction between royal jelly and the digestive system might be more intricate because of gastrointestinal flora. What's more, a portion of the active ingredients might not have been found, and the roles of the active ingredients have not been thoroughly studied, which should be additionally investigated. Additionally, more research proof can also assist royal jelly with being better utilized and more productive.